November 2030 submitted by
Well, uh, this sucks. Just a few short months after the Arab States of the Gulf finally unified, the world economy decided to explode
. This is what we in the business of economics call a very bad thing.
The effects across the FAS have been relatively disparate. The United Arab Emirates, easily the most diversified economy in the region, has been the least heavily impacted (though it's still bad
). Diversification programs in Oman and Bahrain have also helped to stave off some of the worst impacts of the crisis, though they haven't been as successful in avoiding the effects as the UAE. Qatar and Kuwait, still almost entirely
reliant on hydrocarbon exports, are not
happy with this turn of events. Falling global oil prices, though propped up a little by a sudden increase in demand from China
, have left their economies struggling much more than the rest of the country, and in desperate need of assistance from the better off parts of the country.
One major pain point in this crisis has been the FAS's economic ties to the United States. While most of the FAS's trade is with Asia, Africa, and Europe, the US financial system still plays a crucial role in the FAS. The stability of the US Dollar has long been used to protect the economies of the Gulf using their vast Forex reserves (earned from oil sales) to peg their currency to the US Dollar. With the US Dollar in complete collapse, the value of the Khaleeji is plummeting right along with it, causing a significant degree of harm to the FAS's economy.
To help offset this harm (and to decouple the FAS's economy from a country that the FAS is starting to view as maybe not the most reliable
economic partner), the Central Bank in Dubai has announced that the Khaleeji will switch its peg from the US Dollar to a basket of foreign currencies (the Euro, the Pound Sterling, the Swiss Franc, the US Dollar, and the Japanese Yen). The FAS hopes that this will help to salvage the Khaleeji's value, better protecting the economy from the collapse of the dollar-based international financial system. Rumor has it that the Central Bank is discussing the idea of unpegging the Khaleeji entirely and allowing it to float freely, but so far, the Central Bank has made no moves towards floating the Khaleeji. Crises suck. They shatter the status quo and throw established norms and procedures into chaos. No one really wins during a crisis.
But in another sense, they're a double-edged sword. The status quo is often a repressive entity, reinforcing existing hierarchies and preventing dramatic shifts in the order of things. Chaos breaks that apart, giving the ingenuitive and the entrepreneurial on opportunity to better their lot in ways they otherwise could not.
Put differently: chaos is a ladder, and the FAS intends to be the one climbing it. As the largest economy in the Arab World (and one of the world's 20 largest economies) by both nominal GDP and GDP per capita (by a significant margin--it's probably either Saudi Arabia or Egypt in second place in nominal GDP, and definitely Saudi Arabia in second place in GDP per capita, but the FAS more than doubles the country in second place in both categories, so it's sort of a moot point), the FAS hopes to cement its place as the regional economic power.
The FAS has announced a new slate of policies intended to attract rich investors, manufacturing firms, and financiers fleeing the new nationalization program of the United States. New free trade zones have been created throughout the country--especially in the struggling, undiversified regions of Kuwait and Qatar--with the goal of convincing fleeing American manufacturers to set up shop in these areas. Attractions include wildly low tax rates (as low as zero percent in some instances), a common law framework (as opposed to the Sharia-based legal system in most of the FAS), highly subsidized land prices (sometimes free), relaxed financial restrictions (making it easier to move money in and out of the FTZ), and, for large enough firms moving enough operations into the country, preferential visa treatment (making it easier for them to relocate foreign employees into the country). Sitting at one of the major crossroads of global trade, moving operations to the FAS offers easy access to both the world's established consumer markets (like the EU and East Asia) as well as to some of its largest growing markets (South and Southeast Asia, East Africa, and MENA). Pair this with wildly high standards of living (for people who aren't
slaves Asian or African migrant workers) and established expatriate communities, and the FAS becomes an incredibly attractive option for American and other foreign firms looking to relocate.
In addition to manufacturing-oriented FTZs, special attention has been paid to attracting service-oriented firms to new and existing FTZs in the vein of Dubai Internet City, Dubai Design District, Dubai Knowledge Park, and Dubai Media City, with the goal of developing a robust service economy that can capture growing markets in the MENA, South Asia, and East African regions. In advertising these zones, the governments of the FAS have highlighted the success of previous ventures in Dubai, which have attracted the regional headquarters of giants like Facebook, Intel, LinkedIn, Google, Dell, Samsung, Microsoft, IBM, Tata Consultancy, and more.
Perhaps one of the most substantial pushes, though, is to attract American financial services and FinTech firms to base in the FAS (particularly Dubai, Kuwait City, Doha, and Abu Dhabi, the traditional centers of regional finance). New financial industry free trade zones have been set up in the four cities, structured in the vein of the Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC). These financial FTZs boast an independent and internationally regulated regulatory and judicial system, a common law framework, and extremely low taxation rates. All government services in these regions are available in English (the lingua franca of international finance), and in events where ambiguity exists in the legal and regulatory systems, the systems are set to default to English Common Law (except for the Kuwait City International Financial Centre, which is hoping to better tailor itself towards American financial firms by defaulting to American Civil Law from pre-2020 rather than English Common Law). Much like in the DIFC, these new FTZs will also run their own courts, staffed in large part by top judicial talent from Common Law (or in the case of Kuwait City, American Civil Law) jurisdictions like Singapore, England, and (formerly) Hong Kong. Using these FTZ, the four cities hope to raise their profile as financial centers. Dubai in particular is hoping to break into the top ten global financial centers--and it stands a good chance of doing so, too, as it sits at number 12, just behind cities like LA, SF, and Shenzhen--while the other cities are just hoping to boost their profile into the 20s or 10s (according to Long Finance, Dubai is number 12 in the world and 1 in the region, Abu Dhabi is number 39 in the world and two in the region, Doha is number 48 in the world, and Kuwait City is number 91).
Hello! i'm 20 years old in egypt and studying med and i've been trying to be learn things during quarantine, i've learned spanish and made some drop shipping money but overall i'm eager to learn something new, i'm willing to learn forex if it's actually worth it to make some money as rn i barely have any money at all... 150$ tops i'm not looking to make a lot of money just enough for my monthly expenses. I've heard many people say don't and that's it a scam and stuff like that, should i start learning or not? please help submitted by
Welcome to the Biweekly Geopolitics Thread, where you can discuss all the interesting things that have happened across the world. Did your favourite singer win a Grammy? Did your favourite sport just have a major event? Is Kim Jong-Un still around? Discussion topics do not have to be related to India - yes, we too can comment on countries that we barely know anything about! Here are a few items to get the conversation started:
Top stories from India's neighbourhood: 1. Pak close to securing IMF deal
Despite money from allies Saudi Arabia and the UAE, and possibly also from China, Pakistan is still going to the IMF for a bailout package that, as PM Khan said, will include some tough reform measures. Pak is asking for a loan as forex reserves stand at $8 billion (less than 2 months of imports) and growth is slowing. Bond rating companies have further downgraded Pakistani bonds on fears that the country will be unable to repay its massive debt. In addition, local banks that deal heavily in government debt have also been recently downgraded, making it harder for them to get credit from the international market. 2. Iran marks 40th anniversary of Islamic Revolution
In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini led a revolution in Iran that toppled the Western-backed Shah's regime and established the Islamic Republic. Iran marked the 40th anniversary of that event with a series of events, including a national speech by the President Rouhani, whose authority is subordinate to that of the Ayatollah, where he vowed to build Iran's military capabilities in the face of a American opposition and sanctions that have crippled the economy. The head of the elite Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps (which is a US-designated terrorist organization) also vowed to continue Iran's military interventions across the region, saying "We will help any Muslim anywhere in the world." 3. Thai princess barred from contesting upcoming elections
In a surprising turn of events last week, the sister of the Thai king, Princess Ubolratana Rajakanya Sirivadhana Barnavadi, filed her papers to content in the upcoming national elections, the first to be held since a military coup ousted the previous civilian administration in 2014. And to make matters worse, she filed her nomination with the Thai Raksa Chart party, which supports the former ousted Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Now, the country's election commission has rejected her nomination, ostensibly to keep the royal family above politics. What's more, the party could face a ban for breaking a law that requires politicians to avoid using the monarchy for political issues. A ban on the party could give more power to the military-backed government that is looking to win the election. The military already nominates one-third of legislators as per a new Constitution.
Top stories from the world: 1. Russia plans new missiles after both sides withdraw from INF Treaty
After the US pulled out of the Cold War-era Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty, Russia did the same and has now vowed to developed new intermediate-range nuclear missiles (500-5,500 km range). The treaty was originally signed to prevent nuclear annihilation of Europe by Soviet nuclear weapons, but the US has accused Russia of violating the treaty in the last few years. However, many commentators believe that the real reason the US withdrew from the treaty is so that it could develop new missiles to target China's eastern seaboard from Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Guam. China is not part of the treaty and already has intermediate-range nuclear missiles, and the Trump administration has previously said that it would want a new treaty to include China. 2. Venezuela's military blocks road to prevent aid from entering country
Venezuela plunged deeper into crisis as the military, which officially backs President Maduro, blocked a major bridge into neighbouring Colombia to prevent a shipment of aid from entering the country. He was condemned by opposition leader and presidential claimant, Juan Guaido, who wants to use the aid to undermine Maduro and force him to leave office. Most neighbouring countries, European countries, and the US recognize Guaido as the interim president pending free elections. Maduro, on his part, claims that there is no humanitarian crisis in the country and that the aid is akin to a US military invasion. "We are not beggars," Maduro said. 3. 'Miss Curvy Uganda' sparks outrage
Like every country, Uganda wants to promote tourism. However, a private initiative backed by the country's tourism minister has sparked an outrage. 'Miss Curvy Uganda' is a planned beauty pageant for "plus sized women" to encourage tourists to come and see Uganda's beautiful women. This is part of the tourism ministry's plan to add 'curvy and sexy women' to official literature as one of the many attractions in the country. However, women's right activists and the country's ethics minister have condemned it, stating that it objectifies women and normalized sexual violence. Calls for cancelling the event and firing the tourism minister continue to grow.
Geopolitical History: The Suez Crisis (A new feature to educate the sub on critical people and events that shaped history)
In 1956, Egyptian President Nasser (one of the co-founders of the Non-Aligned Movement along with Nehru, Tito, and Sukarno) nationalized the Suez Canal, setting off a crisis with France and Britain that wanted to retain control over it, as well as Israel, which Egypt was blockading since it was founded. In October 1956, Israel, France, and Britain invaded Egypt. Aside from ensuring continuing shipments of oil, the British had an additional reason to fight: to continue to have speedy access to its colonies East of Suez, even though its largest and most important colony there (India) had achieved independence. The French blamed Nasser's Arab nationalism for stoking an independence movement in Algeria, while Israel wanted to strengthen its position on its southern border and gain shipping access via the Straits of Tiran in the Red Sea.
The invasion was a quick military victory for the British, French, and Israeli forces, but not before Egyptian forces damaged the canal and prevented its further use. However, it was a diplomatic disaster for those countries. US President Eisenhower condemned the attack on the grounds that he could not condemn the ongoing Soviet invasion of Hungary while being seen to accept the invasion of Egypt. He also threatened to sell millions of pounds of British bonds to undermine their economy. The Soviet Union also condemned the invasion as it was trying to gain favour of the Muslim world (indeed, hundreds of thousands protested against the invasion in Lahore). At the UN, the General Assembly passed a resolution against the invasion and established the UN Emergency Force (UNEF) to bring a stop to the fighting, the first peacekeeping force established by the UN. Saudi Arabia also started an oil embargo against Britain and France (it never traded with Israel anyway).
In the end, Egypt won the war, with the UN, US, and USSR recognizing its sovereignty over the Suez Canal. Israel gained marginally as it restored trade through the Straits of Tiran, which Egypt had closed since 1950; it also saw a period of peace with Egypt as the UN force stopped fighting in the Sinai. For Britain (and to a lesser extent France), it marked the end of its global empire as it was humiliated and forced to withdraw. In subsequent years, all remaining large colonies East of Suez gained independence. Canada's Secretary for External Affairs Lester Pearson, who went on to become its Prime Minister, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for spearheading UNEF and thus creating the modern concept of a peacekeeping force.
The Suez Crisis also shaped Indian foreign policy, and was marked as a success of the Non-Aligned Movement in opposing imperialism while also protecting India's economic interests (India was one of the top users of the Suez Canal). Indian representatives participated in negotiations on the crisis (including representing Egypt at a peace conference that the country had officially boycotted) and Indian troops participated in the UNEF force, our first such participation as a sovereign republic in a foreign military crisis.
What events in the world caught your attention? Share it with the sub!
I moved to Israel six years ago. How that happened:
I am Jewish (you probably guessed) and bought into the idea that it is our ancestral homeland.
After being taken on one of those free two weeks tours, I became captivated by the country and planned to move there. It took a few years of planning for that wish to come to fruition.
To be honest, I still believe in Jewish people's right to be here and that a Jewish country is the only natural environment for a Jew (particularly an observant one) to live in. I just happen not to like the one country that fits that criteria very much, or many of its citizens - and that also happens to be the country I live in!
I also believe that is Israel's responsibility to help realize a just and lasting solution to the Palestinian "problem". In my view, that is not reconcilable with endlessly occupying the land they live on and subjecting them to military law. But that aside...
The Israel I visited as a tourist and the Israel I live in as a citizen are like two completely countries. So much so that if I were a conspiracy theorist (I am not!), I would practically believe the whole thing was an illusion.
Manners (Or Lack Thereof)
For whatever reason, manners are virtually absent here
The stereotypes are 100% true.
Maybe I missed that earlier? I'm not sure, because some people with parents who were born here have told me that people have become ruder and more aggressive over the years. I tend to believe it.
You buy stuff in the market and shopkeepers just glare at you and slam your change on the counter without even bothering to say "thank you"
I feel like if someone tried that in NYC they might be asking for a fight!
Not a single person in my building knows how to close their door. My table jars every few minutes from the vibration of people slamming their doors.
People play music at all hours. And blare private conversations over their phone's loudspeakers because they can't be bothered bringing the handset to their ears. This varies a little by city (Tel Aviv is slightly more refined), but in general the culture is incredibly inconsiderate. Shouting is very commonplace (of course, it's just a "friendly argument"), honking on the roads is incessant, and people are too inpatient and inconsiderate to be able to form a queue. People will push grandmothers out of the way to get on a bus sooner. If it weren't sad, it would be funny. Social cohesion is sorely lacking
, IMO, as evidenced by the massive amount of splinter and minority parties that form before every election.
Everybody is in a tribe or, if not, an "enemy" (read: an Arab).
The sad and blunt truth is that it's a crude, racist society
that even has a problem with some of its own (see: treatment of Ethiopian Jews).
(BTW, this is something that gets discussed a lot among Jews that voluntarily move here. People come up with all manner of BS excuses to justify it. "It's directness." No, it's atrocious manners. "There are no words for basic courtesies in Hebrew". Yes, there are - open a dictionary! "It's Middle Eastern". Travel to Egypt and Jordan. People have manners there. Unfortunately, most people that have negative things to say about the country get silenced by the aggressive "nothing can be wrong here" brigade.)
Prices are insanely high
and, as far as I can tell, the situation is only getting worse.
Generally, those prices are for crappy products imported from China and heavily marked up. Or the local stuff sold by a company that is part of an oligopoly and would never survive in a free market environment. Customer service is almost non-existent - or at least, has the local twist which is "the customer is always wrong".
And of course - those wonderful overpriced products and services are sold to you by often rude ungrateful people. Working here also flat out sucks
The world has bought into the myth that Israel is a land of amazing startups where everybody is swimming in opportunity.
The reality is that more than 90% of the economy is employed in protectionist dysfunctional companies and Israel has one of the lowest per-capita productivity rates in the OECD
(feel free to check the numbers - it's late at night here and I'm trying not to lose the 'flow' of this). It's capitalism with all the benefits taken out. The socialist/kibbutznik backbone that formed the society is dead. Income inequality, as measured by the Geni coefficient, is among the highest in the world.
If you're not a Java developer or help run one of the ports (don't ask - monopoly!) you can expect to be paid a salary roughly a third lower than the West - while living in one of the most expensive countries in the world. A good chunk of immigrants here are employed in scam industries, including (but not limited to) binary, forex, and other international "scams." They attempted to regulate these, but due to corruption and cronyism, largely failed. Just as they attempted to pass a fair rental law which had about the same result.
To add insult to injury ****, Israelis are C-H-E-A-P***\
* in my opinion (given the pejorative Jewish-money stereotypes, I realize that this is something that would be problematic/difficult for a non-Jew to assert).
You see this in the workplace. You're expected to work like a slave while your miserly employer tries his best haggling skills to pay you as little as possible. Unsurprisingly, Israelis founded Fiverr and have proven very eager exponents of the offshoring model, where they can find people willing to work for even less than olim hadashim
(Jewish immigrants). Israelis love bargaining and will treat anything that involves money as a game whereby they attempt to keep as much of it as possible.
In terms of conditions - the minimum number of vacation days are 12 while the working week is 45 hours
. Again, for pretty miserable salaries. Public holidays, which are relatively few, do not roll over if they fall out on a weekend. In general, a cultural of professionalism is sorely lacking. My strongly held opinion is that the best have already left.
Also: a bunch of Israelis sponge off their families until well over their forties. The country is also awash with Jewish immigrants who mysteriously seem to survive despite never having held a job in their life. The explanation? Their familiar are sponsoring them.
Religious Coercion / Weekends
Because of the Jewish Sabbath (during which public transport does not run; shops start closing half-way through Friday), you never even really feel like you've had a proper weekend.
Property is the worst of all. Astronomically expensive. Taxes on new cars are almost 100%
so almost everybody drives beat-up second hand ones, if they have one at all (it's considered a luxury). And the standards of housing - from anybody comparing it to the West - is relatively abysmal. There's a great Facebook page with some photos of the worst rentals on the market. Even if you don't read Hebrew, just take a look at some of the photos
The first generations that came here have done a nice job at monopolizing large segments of the market and housing stock so are well taken care of.
For virtually anybody else, their future is renting
(from rude slumlords!) Hotel prices are also outrageous
, and there's the added insult of having to pay more for rooms if you're from the country
. People here literally fly to Europe because it's cheaper than staycationing in this ripoff!
Want to console yourself about that with a nice mango? Even fruit here has become expensive recently. The only thing that's cheaper here than the West is healthcare and public transport. It's a great country to be on the breadline in. To thrive financially? Not so much.
The public endlessly votes for a lying, corrupt prime minister
who has just let the parliament dissolve in his pathetic bid to avoid fraud charges.
The country is apparently rapidly descending into a religious dictatorship and nobody seems to care
- yet it still has the nerve to call itself "the only democracy in the Middle East."
The school system is failing and a segment of the population which doesn't work or paid taxes (the ultra-Orthodox) have somehow wound up in the position where they pull all the political strings.
People, for a reason I can never understand, generally seem to simply accept the status quo.
They are content with simply surviving and not being obliterated by Iran/Hamas/Hizbullah. As someone that didn't grow up in that security environment, this seems baffling to me. I feel like grabbing hold of one of Netanyahu's voters and asking him/her "That's truly all you aspire towards?"
The most that happens is some journalist (automatically branded a "leftist" by the right-wing majority) writes some article in the Opinion section of Ha'aretz. The last time people got out on the street to protest in significant numbers was years ago
(remember the cottage cheese protests?). In Greece, the riot police get called out to put down mass protests. Here, people are happy to simply survive (sort of).
Why does the average person here vote for Netanyahu?
You know, because things are so great here and some third-world tycoon has been to visit (this is advertised as "unprecedented diplomatic achievements.").
Oh, and the economy has "never been stronger" (even though the country also has an enormous poverty problem and many people are struggling to simply get by).
I have a bad habit of checking Google News every few hours.
Reading those articles just makes me angry.
But it's really nothing more than a reflection of how people are on the street. Rude. Aggressive. Argumentative. Demanding. Always in the fricking right. Also locals here literally never apologize for anything
(that would be considered too "weak" to fit in with the local culture).
There's also this weird fetish with strength and the military
here that I find disturbing. You see it in slang a lot (an "explosion" also means a good thing, like "that party was an explosion" is an idiom for "that party was a great time"). Being human (such as letting somebody cut ahead of you in line at the supermarket because they only have a couple of items) is branded as "weakness" and frowned upon
. As is having manners. To be honest, I believe that the culture here is best described as "sick".
Israel has made me feel like an old man, even though I'm far from that.
All I want, at this point, is a basic quality of life.
Things like a non-minuscule apartment in which to live. Decent professional opportunities that don't involve working for some (usually shady) startup simply trying to use my English to get some investor to pump money into them so they can offshore everything to the US. The possibility of a week's vacation in somewhere that isn't a dingy ripoff staffed by rude people! And to hear somebody say "thank you, have a nice day" when I buy an apple from them!
I travel abroad a couple of times a year and usually feel like I've stepped into another planet. It's like somebody is dispersing a fine mist of Valium from the air. Hard to put my finger on it but people just seem kind of sedate and relaxed!
People are less direct (I'll admit, I actually like the directness here!), but know basic manners, everything isn't overpriced, and people enjoy a real weekend! You can order stuff from Amazon and it actually arrives on time! Somehow, there's no shouting! People know how to actually form a line! You don't have to stand up for yourself simply to not be pushed over!
I'm planning my escape (among other things), but I have to hold this in every day until I get out. I don't feel comfortable telling this to my friends (I rebrand it as "I'm finding it difficult here" without going into details) and I can't exactly broadcast my feelings to the average person on the street.
The truth is that I'm not as miserable as I sound.
I've been doing some self-work recently just to cope with living here. Stress and all that.
My mindset has taken a shift to the positive. And I'm really grateful by how much it has helped.
But it doesn't make living here any less distasteful and actually made me much more inclined to write this here (why wouldn't I tell the world like it is - at least as I see it?).
BTW, I'm a real Reddit user but, because I'm paranoid about privacy, I set up a new account just to write this post.
So thank you, Reddit, for giving me the chance to put this into writing!
If you're also living, or have lived here, feel free to let me know your thoughts in the comments.
And if you haven't and are considering doing so, please take everything you have read and heard about the country with a pinch (actually, make that the entire carton-full) of salt!
Some Links / Further Reading:
Citizens when they are witness to economic unrest in their own countries usually begin to buy foreign currency and keep it in reserve against the devaluation of their own currency. This is normal during troubled times, and we were beginning to see the same thing occurring in Turkey. However, Erdogan thisa number of weeks ago called for all Turkish citizens to sell their foreign currencies to prop up the Lira. This sort of a call is usually code for “we are going to confiscate your money when we find it” so you better sell it now, as well as a tacit admission that the Lira’s value is in serious trouble. Thus, the economy as well. submitted by
In my opinion due to the tacit threat of monetary confiscation we are now seeing a flight to bitcoin and this is also a clue to the unrest that Erdogan is dealing with. Why is this problematic? Since Turkey can’t confiscate currency that is online and untraceable. We can see the flight to Bitcoin by comparing Forex crosses against bitcoin volume.
In this light we can see a trend whereby that out of the top 8 Bitcoin traded countries/currency (USD, JPY, EURO, GBD, KRW, PLN, TRY, RUB/RUR) only 4 (USD, JPY, EURO and GBD) are in the top 8 Forex pairings. The others are minor currencies.
The Top 8 Forex crosses are:
EUUSD 37% of total volume
USD/JPY 13% of total volume
GBD/USD 12% of total volume
AUD/USD 6% of total volume
USD/CHF 5% of total volume
USD/CAD 4% of total volume
EUJPY 2% of total volume
EUCHF 2 % of total volume
Based upon the comparison between the Bitcoin and Forex Volume we can conclude that there is a feeling of unrest in Korea, Poland, Russia and Turkey. Why put discretionary cash in bitcoin if you feel secure! Add to this the protests, negative economic indicators and international isolation and we can conclude that Turkey is ripe for unrest and the citizens wanting regime change. This does not mean that they will succeed as Erdogan controls the military. However, as we have seen in the past (example the revolution in Egypt) once the upper echelon of the army personally starts to feel the economic results of its leaders’ policies and the people start to demand change, the military almost always sides with the people for their own self-preservation and the betterment of the country they serve.
Firstly I hope this is in the correct subreddit but I was reading a site that was interviewing Chris Reynolds Gordon and about half way it had this question and answer - submitted by
Then you came into money in quite dark circumstances? Yes. When my mum died – when I was 21 – I inherited £360,000, which I invested into training to be a trader. My account skyrocketed, trading FTSE 100 and then FOREX. I did very, very well, and when Lehman Brothers went down I made an astronomical amount of money. I decided to put it all into property. I had six properties in Dubai, four in Morocco and two in Egypt at the age of 22, and I just wanted to focus on my running. Then this massive recession hit and I lost everything. At the time, I had around a £3.2 million net worth, but being paper rich is very different to having money in the bank. If the economy didn't crash as it did, I wouldn't be working right now.
Basically my question was how would he have made so much money from the collapse of Lehman Brothers I just assumed everyone lost out. Thanks in Advance
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